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The structure of liquid water is believed to consist of aggregates of water molecules that form and re-form continually. This short-range order, as it is called, accounts for other unusual properties of water, such as its high viscosity and surface tension. An oxygen atom has six electrons in its outer valence shell, which can hold a total of eight electrons.

When an oxygen atom forms a single chemical bond, it shares one of its own electrons with the nucleus of another atom and receives in return a share of an electron from that atom. When bonded to two hydrogen atoms, the outer electron shell of the oxygen atom is filled. The electron arrangement in the water molecule can be represented as follows. Each pair of dots represents a pair of unshared electrons i.

This situation can also be depicted by placing the water molecule in a cube. This electronic structure leads to hydrogen bonding.


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Drinking water - Wikipedia

Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Structure of water Liquid water Structures of ice Significance of the structure of liquid water Behaviour and properties Water at high temperatures and pressures Physical properties Chemical properties Acid-base reactions Oxidation-reduction reactions.

Written By: Steven S.

How Much Water is There on Earth?

See Article History. Facts Matter. Water is fundamental to life on our planet, but this precious resource is increasingly in demand and under threat. The Work. Monitoring water quality. Addressing Land-Based Pollution. Supporting the Sustainable Development Goals and water.

Addressing water-related conflict and disasters. Mainstreaming freshwater ecosystem health. Advancing integrated water resources management. Tackling global water pollution. Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Water Research has an open access mirror journal Water Research X , sharing the same aims and scope, editorial team, submission system and rigorous peer review.

Water Research publishes refereed, original research papers on all aspects of the science and technology of water quality and its management Water Research publishes refereed, original research papers on all aspects of the science and technology of water quality and its management worldwide.

Water Research

A broad outline of the journal's scope includes: Treatment processes for water and wastewaters, municipal, agricultural and industrial, including residuals management. Water quality monitoring and assessment, based on chemical, physical and biological methods. Studies on inland, tidal or coastal waters and urban waters, including surface and ground waters, and point and non-point sources of pollution.

The limnology of lakes, impoundments and rivers. Solid and hazardous waste management, including source characterization and the effects and control of leachates and gaseous emissions. Environmental restoration, including soil and groundwater remediation. The application of mathematical modelling and system analysis techniques. Public health and risk assessment.

Socio-economic studies. Audience Biologists, chemical engineers, chemists, civil engineers, environmental engineers, limnologists and microbiologists. Benefits to authors We also provide many author benefits, including a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.


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